This report describes the approach proposed in the CEN standard EN 16640 (Bio-based products – Determination of the bio-based carbon content of products using the radiocarbon method)
This report covers approaches for the indirect calculation of total bio-based content. Indirect methods are useful when the bio-based product is not manufactured in a dedicated facility, causing potential fluctuations in the amount of biomass incorporated into the final article. The choice of potential methods is large, and how they are put into practice can vary the output dramatically.
Current biodegradation test methods in different environments (fresh water, marine environment, anaerobic environment, soil and compost) and the existing test procedures for evaluating environmental safety are reviewed. Existing difficulties and gaps in the current test methods are defined. Extensive work on plant and earthworm ecotoxicity tests to check biodegradation in soil components and assess the standardized test methods is presented.
This report presents the results of the desk research of ecolabels that can be relevant for biobased products carried out within Task 5.4 of KBBPPS. The main objective of this task was to analyse existing green labels for the selected products (Task 5.1) and to discuss the possible conflicts of including bio-based carbon or biomass content in these labels.
The main focus of this research was on technical bottlenecks for BBP stemming from regulations, codes, norms and standards, but another aspect of the analysis were also barriers in the process chain such as access to raw materials, unsuitable political framework, lack of information, inappropriate communication and labelling as well as finance.
The main aim was to check whether existing product specifications, test standards, certifications and labelling present hurdles to bio-based variants.
In the following report all relevant standards on a global level are reviewed with respect to the biogenic carbon content determination. In general it is an overview of all standards that can be used when determining the biogenic carbon content and will give directions when no relevant standards are available.
This review is focused in all standards concerning the sampling, pre-treatment and 14C determination of all product types, which includes solids, liquids, gasses and mixtures of these.
The application of standards and certification systems in the European bio-based product industry has positive long-term effects on the overall development of bio-based product markets. Trade barriers are reduced and the development of a pan-European market for bio-based products is promoted. Finally, public acceptance of bio-based products is increased through ensuring and verifying the sustainable sourcing of raw materials, the effective bio-content and clear indication of their (comparative) functionality in relation to the regular products. The KBBPPS project aims at increasing the uptake speed of standards and certification systems for bio-based products.
This project covers research and demonstration on bio-based carbon content determination, biomass content methods not solely dependent on 14C-analysis and biodegradability and eco-toxicity test schemes. Next, identification and resolution of functionality related bottlenecks with the view to developing, harmonising and validating test methodologies will be undertaken. The possibilities for improving sample preparation, fractionation and thermal treatments will be studied in order to cover bio-base carbon and other bio-based elements determination. Next, practical solutions for stakeholders, lab and field tests on biodegradation or biological derived elements will be investigated. The goal in the end is that the results can be copied one-to-one into European standards.
Following Mandates by the EC, the European Standardization Committee initiated a Technical Committee, CEN/TC 411. on “”Bio-based products””. By participating in this committee (its Secretariat being one of the partners), by exchanging with ASTM and ISO, and by doing pre- and co-normative research for them, KBBPPS will allow the European stakeholders to progress with well-defined, sound test methods correlated to actual field behaviour and applicability in the lab.
Grant Agreement ID312060
DurationFrom: 2012-08-01To: 2015-07-31
Overall Budget3 852 826,60 €
CoordinatorSTICHTING KONINKLIJK NEDERLANDS NORMALISATIE INSTITUUT