Category: Standardisation, LCA, labelling and regulatory hurdles

Assessment study report of indirect declaration techniques to determine total bio-based content

This report covers approaches for the indirect calculation of total bio-based content. Indirect methods are useful when the bio-based product is not manufactured in a dedicated facility, causing potential fluctuations in the amount of biomass incorporated into the final article. The choice of potential methods is large, and how they are put into practice can vary the output dramatically.

Eco-toxicological impact study

Current biodegradation test methods in different environments (fresh water, marine environment, anaerobic environment, soil and compost) and the existing test procedures for evaluating environmental safety are reviewed. Existing difficulties and gaps in the current test methods are defined. Extensive work on plant and earthworm ecotoxicity tests to check biodegradation in soil components and assess the standardized test methods is presented.

Review on decentralized composting

This deliverable contains:

  • A review on existing standards on decentralized (home and farm) composting;
  • A review on existing practices;
  • A definition of the need for further work and developments.

This deliverable aims to give an overview on the state of affairs in this field.

It contains information with regard to the principles and practices of home compost-ing. Besides also available standard specifications, labelling systems and regulations towards home compostable products are discussed in detail. Next , it explains the principles of farm composting and gives an overview of existing practices. Finally, the report gives a general conclusion and some first ideas for the development of a specification for bio-based materials suitable for decentralized (home and farm) composting.

Review on centralized composting

This deliverable contains a critical review on available standards and practices and an evaluation of benefits shortcomings. Summarizing it can be stated that centralized composting (= industrial composting) can be considered as a reliable technology in order to convert organic waste to compost. Currently, industrial composting is a frequently applied technology in several countries and it is expected that the amount of industrial composted biowaste will further increase in the future.

Review of current methods and standards relevant to marine degradation

The marine realm is the largest ecosystem on our planet. However, to most people “the sea” is an infinite mass of water hidden from their direct view by its shimmering surface. If the fate and possible effect of plastic in the world’s oceans shall be addressed, or the effect of the marine environment on plastic, it is needed to know the framework of conditions that shape this ecosystem. This holds especially true for the development of substantiated testing schemes for the biodegradability of bio-based solid materials. A solid testing scheme for the marine environment does not exist yet. The aim of this deliverable is to provide the back-ground knowledge needed for the definition of an improved and substantiated testing scheme from literature and relevant existing standards. A collection and critical analysis of information on the subject needed to base the subsequent activities on a knowledge background, was executed.

Overview report on functionality testing

Report on functionality testing for demonstrating the functionality of novel bio-based products. Key mechanical properties, key chemical/thermal parameters and additional functionalities that ensure the functionality of the bio-based project over its entire product life were defined. This implies testing before and after use or before and after ageing.

Additionally, specific characteristics of the bio-based products that differ from existing petrochemical products were addressed.